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瓦斯发电技术原理及瓦斯发电机组的余热应用

   发布于:2020-02-12 10:56

德赢官网 | 官网登录首页 煤层气在煤矿称为煤矿瓦斯。依据新的资源评价结果,我国陆上煤层气资源量36 8万亿立方米,与陆上常规自然气资源

  煤层气在煤矿称为煤矿瓦斯。依据新的资源评价结果,我国陆上煤层气资源量36.8万亿立方米,与陆上常规自然气资源量(38万亿立方米)相当,仅次于俄罗斯和加拿大。煤层气的主要成分是甲烷,甲烷在空气中的浓度到达5%-16%时,遇明火就会爆炸,这是煤矿瓦斯爆炸事故的本源。

  Coalbed methane is called coal mine gas in coal mine. According to the new resource evaluation results, China's onshore CBM resources amount to 36.8 trillion cubic meters, which is equivalent to the onshore conventional natural gas resources (38 trillion cubic meters), second only to Russia and Canada. The main component of coalbed methane is methane. When the concentration of methane in the air reaches 5%-16%, it will explode in open fire, which is the source of coal mine gas explosion accident.

  煤层气不加以应用,直接排放到大气中,其温室效应约为二氧化碳的21倍。煤矿瓦斯发电,既能够有效地处理煤矿瓦斯事故、改善煤矿平安消费条件,又有利于增加干净能源供给、减少温室气体排放,到达维护生命、维护资源、维护环境的多重目的。

  The greenhouse effect of coal bed methane (CBM) is about 21 times that of carbon dioxide (CO2) when it is discharged directly into the atmosphere without application. Coal mine gas power generation can not only effectively deal with coal mine gas accidents, improve the safe consumption conditions of coal mine, but also help to increase the supply of clean energy, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and achieve multiple purposes of maintaining life, resources and environment.

  一、低浓度瓦斯发电技术

  I. Low Concentration Gas Power Generation Technology

瓦斯发电机组

  煤矿瓦斯分高浓度瓦斯和低浓度瓦斯,高浓度瓦斯是指瓦斯浓度大于25%的瓦斯,低浓度瓦斯是指瓦斯浓度低于25%的瓦斯。我国60%以上的瓦斯是含甲烷25%以下的低浓度瓦斯,按煤矿平安规程请求,瓦斯浓度在25%以下的就不能储存和保送,更谈不上应用了。

  Coal mine gas consists of high concentration gas and low concentration gas. High concentration gas refers to the gas whose concentration is more than 25%, and low concentration gas refers to the gas whose concentration is less than 25%. More than 60% of the gas in our country is low concentration gas containing less than 25% methane. According to the requirements of coal mine safety regulations, the gas concentration below 25% can not be stored and delivered, let alone applied.

  瓦斯发电机组

  Gas Generator Set

  低浓度瓦斯发电需求处理2个问题,一是各个煤矿的自身不一样,而且随时都在变化,传统的发电机组很难“以不变应万变”;二是低浓度瓦斯的平安保送问题。

  There are two problems to be dealt with in the demand of low-concentration gas power generation. One is that each coal mine is different and changing at any time. It is difficult for traditional generating units to "respond to changes with unchangeability"; the other is the problem of safe transmission of low-concentration gas.

  低浓度瓦斯发电机组采用电控燃气混合器技术,能够自动控制空燃比,以顺应瓦斯的浓度变化,同时,也处理了低浓度瓦斯平安保送技术,采用细水雾技术,处理了低浓度瓦斯的空中平安保送问题。

  The low-concentration gas generator unit adopts the technology of electric control gas mixer, which can automatically control the air-fuel ratio to adapt to the change of gas concentration. At the same time, it also deals with the safe delivery technology of low-concentration gas, and uses the fine water mist technology to deal with the safe delivery problem of low-concentration gas in the air.

  二、低浓度瓦斯发电根本请求

  II. Fundamental Request for Low Concentration Gas Power Generation

  首先、按国度煤矿平安管理部门的请求装置了瓦斯抽放系统,并且瓦斯抽放系统须正常运转;其次、瓦斯抽放系统纯瓦斯抽放量在100万m3/年左右,瓦斯浓度在6-25%之间。到达这2个条件就能具备建立瓦斯电站的根底,若建立瓦斯电站就可完成“以应用促抽采、以抽采促平安”的煤矿良性循环开展。

  Firstly, according to the request of the national coal mine safety management department, the gas drainage system is installed, and the gas drainage system must operate normally; secondly, the gas drainage volume of the gas drainage system is about 1 million m3/year, and the gas concentration is between 6-25%. If these two conditions are reached, the foundation of gas power station can be established. If gas power station is established, the benign cycle of coal mine can be carried out, which is "promoting extraction by application and promoting safety by extraction".

  三、瓦斯发电站的投资和收益

  III. Investment and Return of Gas Power Station

  电站投资:3000-4000元/KW;机组保证连续运转功率400kW,年运转时间可达300天以上;

  Power plant investment: 3000-4000 yuan/KW; unit guarantees continuous operation power of 400 kW, annual operation time can reach more than 300 days;

  一台发电机组年发电量:300万kwh(耗费纯瓦斯100万m3/年);

  The annual generating capacity of a generating unit is 3 million kwh (consuming 1 million m3/year of pure gas);

  一台发电机组年发电收益:120万元(电价按0.4元/KWh计);

  The annual generating income of a generating unit is 1.2 million yuan (the electricity price is 0.4 yuan/KWh).

  一台发电机组年运转本钱包括机油耗费、人员工资、设备维护、设备折旧等,发电本钱在0.10元/kWh左右。

  The annual operating cost of a generating unit includes oil consumption, personnel salary, equipment maintenance, equipment depreciation, etc. The generating cost is about 0.10 yuan/kWh.

  一台发电机组年运转本钱本钱=0.10元/kWh×300万kWh=30万元

  Annual operating cost and cost of a generating unit = 0.10 yuan/kWh *3 million kWh = 300,000 yuan

  一台发电机组年收益:

  Annual revenue of a generating unit:

  年收益=年发电收益-年总本钱费用=120万元-30万元=90万元

  Annual Income = Annual Generation Income - Annual Total Cost Cost = 1.2-300,000 yuan = 900,000 yuan

  四、瓦斯发电站的余热应用及效益(以700GFW机组为例)

  4. Application and Benefit of Waste Heat in Gas Power Station (Take 700GFW Unit as an Example)

  1. 余热应用原理

  1. Application Principle of Waste Heat

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